This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Echinococcosis is among the most neglected parasitic diseases.
Diagnosis Cystic Echinococcosis The diagnosis of E. Cystic echinococcosis must be differentiated from benign cysts, cavitary tuberculosis, mycoses, abscesses, and benign or malignant neoplasms.
Noninvasive imaging techniques such as CT scans, MRI, and ultrasound imaging are all used for detecting and defining the extent and condition of avascular fluid-filled cysts in most organs.
These techniques have proved valuable for diagnosis and preoperative evaluation by staging the condition of the lesion, the extent of the lesion in reference to other organs and vital structures, and identifying the presence of additional occult lesions. Radiography permits the detection of hydatid cysts in the lungs; however, in other organ sites, calcification is necessary for visualization.
Ultrasonography has been widely used for screening, clinical diagnosis, and monitoring of treatment of liver and intra-abdominal cysts.
Cyst viability cannot be reliably determined with radiography or parasite antigen detection; calcification can be present in all stages of cysts.
Serologic tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA and indirect hemagglutination test, are highly sensitive methods for detecting infection.
Specific confirmation can be obtained by demonstrating echinococcal Echinococcosis or hydatid cyst essay by immunodiffusion arc 5 procedures or immunoblot assays 8- 21 —kD bands. Alveolar Echinococcosis Alveolar echinococcosis closely mimics hepatic carcinoma or cirrhosis and is more commonly diagnosed in people of an advanced age.
Plain radiographs show hepatomegaly and characteristic scattered areas of radiolucency outlined by calcific rings 2 to 4 mm in diameter. The usual CT image of E.
Serologic test results are usually positive at high titers. Disease Cystic Echinococcosis The incubation period of cystic echinococcosis is often prolonged for several years and most cases of cystic echinococcosis remain asymptomatic until the cysts reach a large enough size to cause dysfunction.
Most primary infections in humans consist of a single cyst. The liver is the most common site of the hydatid cysts, followed by the lungs.
Cysts in the spleen, kidneys, heart, bone and central nervous system are less common. In secondary echinococcosis, larval tissue spreads from the primary site and new cysts develop after spontaneous or trauma-induced cyst rupture or after release of viable parasite material during invasive treatment procedures.
Signs and symptoms may include hepatic enlargement with or without a palpable mass in the right upper quadrant, right epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Rupture or leakage usually results in acute or intermittent allergic manifestations. Alveolar Echinococcosis The primary infection of alveolar echinococcosis is in the liver, usually the right lobe, but direct extension to contiguous organs, as well as hematogenous metastases to the lungs and brain is not uncommon.
Alveolar echinococcosis is inhibited by the host from completing its development and remains in the proliferative stage indefinitely. The larval mass resembles a malignancy in appearance and behavior. In chronic alveolar hydatid infections, the lesion consists of a central necrotic cavity filled with a white amorphous material that is covered with a thin peripheral layer of dense fibrous tissue.
Host tissue is directly invaded by extension of the budding and proliferating cyst wall, causing a pressure necrosis of surrounding host tissue.
A vigorous inflammatory and fibrous tissue reaction usually surrounds the larval mass. Treatment Cystic Echinococcosis In the past, surgery was the only treatment for cystic echinococcal cysts. Treatment indications vary with cyst characteristics, including cyst type, location, size, and complications.
Surgery may be the best treatment for liver cysts that are secondarily infected or cysts located in the brain, lungs, or kidney.
Liver cysts larger than 7. Many abdominal cysts can be treated by injection of protoscolicidal chemical solutions into the cyst, followed by evacuation, prior to further manipulations and extirpation of cysts. For some patients, chemotherapy with benzimidazoles is the preferred treatment.
Patients with small cysts or multiple cysts in several organs can be treated successfully with albendazole. Additionally, chemotherapy can be very effective when used in conjunction with surgery.
Albendazole has been administered to patients prior to surgery for the intended purpose of facilitating the safe surgical manipulation of the cysts by inactivating protoscolices, altering the integrity of the cysts membranes, and reducing the turgidity of the cysts.
A third treatment option, PAIR percutaneous aspiration, injection of chemicals and reaspirationhas been shown to be effective. This option is indicated for patients with relapse after surgery, failure of chemotherapy alone, or who refuse surgery.Human polycystic echinococcosis is the rarest type of echinococcosis and is characterized by infiltrative, multi-compartment cysts.
Symptoms depend on the location of the cysts.
For example, cysts located in a patients lungs will result in shortness of breath, coughing, and/or chest pain. Echinococcosis is an infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. It manifests as cyst formations in various organs, affecting both humans and animals.
The cysts may be unilocular (E. granulosus) or multilocular (E. multilocularis). Multilocular cysts have particular. Apr 08, · Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is the larval cystic stage (called echinococcal cysts) of a small taeniid-type tapeworm (Echinococcus granulosus) that may cause illness in intermediate hosts, generally herbivorous animals and people who are infected accidentally.
Ultrasonographic appearance of echinococcal cysts is seen in the image below. Cystic echinococcosis / hydatid disease. Human infection with E.
granulosus leads to the development of one or more hydatid cysts located most often in the liver and lungs, and less frequently in the bones, kidneys, spleen, muscles, central nervous system and eyes.
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is the larval cystic stage (called echinococcal cysts) of a small taeniid-type tapeworm (Echinococcus granulosus) that may cause illness in intermediate hosts, generally herbivorous animals and people who are infected accidentally.
Ultrasonographic appearance of echinococcal cysts is seen in the image below. Surgical extraction of a large left ventricular hydatid cyst under transesophageal echocardiography monitoring.
echinococcosis; hepatic hydatid cyst; left ventricular hydatid cyst If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click on the link below to.