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Development[ edit ] A medieval baker with his apprentice. The Bodleian Library, Oxford. The system of apprenticeship first developed in the later Middle Ages and came to be supervised by craft guilds and town governments.
A master craftsman was entitled to employ young people as an inexpensive form of labour in master thesis marketing jobs for providing food, lodging and formal training in the craft.
Most apprentices were males, but female apprentices were found in crafts such as seamstress tailorcordwainerbaker and stationer. Most apprentices aspired to becoming master craftsmen themselves on completion of their contract usually a term of seven yearsbut some would spend time as a journeyman and a significant proportion would never acquire their own workshop.
Subsequently, governmental regulation and the licensing of technical colleges and vocational education formalized and bureaucratized the details of apprenticeship.
They cover all industry sectors in Australia and are used to achieve both 'entry-level' and career 'upskilling' objectives.
There wereAustralian Apprentices in-training as at 31 Marchan increase of 2. Australian Government employer and employee incentives may be applicable, while State and Territory Governments may provide public funding support for the training element of the initiative.
Australian Apprenticeships combine time at work with formal training and can be full-time, part-time or school-based. This is done with the aid of aptitude tests, tips, and information on 'how to retain an apprentice or apprenticeship'.
The Australian government uses Australian Apprenticeships Centres to administer and facilitate Australian Apprenticeships so that funding can be disseminated to eligible businesses and apprentices and trainees and to support the whole process as it underpins the future skills of Australian industry.
Australia also has a fairly unusual safety net in place for businesses and Australian Apprentices with its Group Training scheme.
This is where businesses that are not able to employ the Australian Apprentice for the full period until they qualify, are able to lease or hire the Australian Apprentice from a Group Training Organisation.
It is a safety net, because the Group Training Organisation is the employer and provides continuity of employment and training for the Australian Apprentice. About 40 percent of all Austrian teenagers enter apprenticeship training upon completion of compulsory education at age This number has been stable since the s.
On the one hand, it is a prerequisite for the admission to the Master Craftsman Exam and for qualification tests, and on the other hand it gives access to higher education via the TVE-Exam or the Higher Education Entrance Exam which are prerequisites for taking up studies at colleges, universities, "Fachhochschulen", post-secondary courses and post-secondary colleges.
An Ausbilder must prove that he has the professional qualifications needed to educate another person, has no criminal record and is an otherwise-respectable person.
The law states that "the person wanting to educate a young apprentice must prove that he has an ethical way of living and the civic qualities of a good citizen". Euroinstitut vocatinal school, Czech Republic. Depending on the profession, they may work for two to three days a week in the company and then spend two or three days at a vocational school.
Ninety percent of them are in the dual education system . Switzerland has an apprenticeship similarly to Germany and Austria. The educational system is ternar, which is basically dual education system with mandatory practical courses.
The length of an apprenticeship can be 2, 3 or 4 years. Length[ edit ] Apprenticeships with a length of 2 years are for persons with weaker school results. Apprenticeship with a length of 3 or 4 years are the most common ones. Some crafts, such as electricianare educated in lengths of 3 and 4 years.
In this case, an Electrician with 4 years apprenticeship gets more theoretical background than one with 3 years apprenticeship. Also, but that is easily lost in translation, the profession has a different name. Each of the over nationwide defined vocational profiles has defined framework — conditions as length of education, theoretical and practical learning goals and certification conditions.
Age of the apprentices[ edit ] Typically an apprenticeship is started at age of 15 and 18 after finishing general education. Some apprenticeships have a recommend or required age of 18, which obviously leads to a higher average age.
There is formally no maximum age, however, for persons above 21 it is hard to find a company due to companies preferring younger ages due to the lower cost of labour.
In Canada, each province has its own apprenticeship program, which may be the only route into jobs within compulsory trades.
In Canada, apprenticeships tend to be formalized for craft trades and technician level qualifications. At the completion of the provincial exam, they may write the Provincial Standard exam.
British Columbia is one province that uses these exams as the provincial exam. This means a qualification for the province will satisfy the whole country. The inter-provincial exam questions are agreed upon by all provinces of the time. France[ edit ] In France, apprenticeships also developed between the ninth and thirteenth centuries, with guilds structured around apprentices, journeymen and master craftsmencontinuing in this way untilwhen the guilds were suppressed.The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
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